The reason why this game has strange language and mysterious things is because this game takes place in the far future, somewhere around the 2900's.
Although you are very far in the future, the aliens are not. Nearing the edge of space (the universe), you are much ahead in technology than those unfortunate aliens.
Due to a law that has been kept since the 22st century, aliens are free to kill and loot. There have been some changes in this law however, but for now, you're free to kill any aliens you find. Some of these aliens however, are intelligent and strong. They will do their best to defend their planet against you.
Along with your weakened armour and your crashed spacecraft, you will have to follow the Atlas to restore your ship to full power. There will be alien traders along the way that will help you on your path.